The district of Goychay is situated in the central part of the Azerbaijan Republic, on the foot of the Big Caucasus in the north of Shirvan plain. The area lies nearly 25 km from north to south and 40 km from east to west and equals to736 km2. The region consists of town and 55 villages.
The centre of the region - Goychay is located on the 216th km of the Baku-Kazakh highway, at a distance of 18 km from the railway station Ujar. Goychay borders on Ismailli from north to east, Kurdamir in the south-east, Ujar in the south and Agdash in the west.
The word “Goychay” is originally Turkish word taken from the name of the river Goychay. The water of the river is too transparent and blue, that’s why it is called Goychay-“Blue River”.
According to some historical sources the population of the district was formed by migration of Garaman tribes from Turkey in the XV century. After the earthquake in 50s of the XIX century in Samakhi the people were settled in Goychay. So the settlement began to grow. In December 1867 according to administrative reforms in the Caucasus held by the tsarist government the district (uyezd) of Goychay was formed as a part of Baku province. The centre of the uyezd - Goychay was renamed to town in 1916. On August 8, 1930 the region of Goychay was formed within the formation of the districts of Azerbaijan.
The development of the town Goychay started nearly in 30s of the XX century. In the territory of Goychay there are monuments reflecting the history of our people. The remainders of earthen graves dating from the II century B.C. found in the territory of the villages Incha and Arabjabirli prove the existence of ancient people in this area. Underground bath build in the end of the XIX century and four mosques are samples of the historical monuments and ancient culture.
The region is divided into two geological parts-highland and lowland. The highland is Bozdag and Garamaryam highland, the rest of the territory is lowland. By the geological structure the highland territory dates to the third epoch of cainazoic era and the lowland to the fourth epoch of the same era. Some parts of the territory are covered with modern sediments. The whole territory is generally covered with clay, earthen ground and in some parts thickness of sand sediments is 10-15 sm.
The climate of Goychay is related to wild-warm, semi-desert and dry sub-tropic type. This type is characterized by its poor dampness, mild winter and hot dry summer. The annual amount of sediments on the territory is 400-600 mm. a year.
The Goychay river and Upper Shirvan cannel flow through the territory of the region. The vegetation mainly consists of field. There are bushes in the highlands. The fauna is not so rich.
The territory of the region is rich with natural resources used in house-building. In the valley of the Goychay river and near the village Jayirli cobblestone, gravel and sand are mined.
There is rich clay-bed near Garabaggal which is used in making bricks of high quality.
According to the official information from 31.12.2004 in the region live 105.318 people. During World War II hundreds of people from Goychay were perished. The people from Goychay took part in the battles for territorial integrity of the Azerbaijan Republic. There are 163 victims, 44 missing, and 106 invalids for releasing Garabagh from the Armenian occupants.